We acknowledge the Gadigal of the Eora Nation, the traditional custodians of the Country on which the Art Gallery of NSW stands.


Sea life (Dreaming of the artist's mother)

September 1959


Wandjuk Marika


circa 1930 – 16 Jun 1987

Language group: Rirratjingu, Arnhem region

Artist profile

  • Details

    Other Title
    Sea life - Dreaming of the Artist's mother
    Place where the work was made
    Yirrkala North-east Arnhem Land Northern Territory Australia
    September 1959
    Media category
    Bark painting
    Materials used
    natural pigments on bark
    102.9 x 62.9 cm (irreg.)
    Signature & date

    Not signed. Not dated.

    Gift of Dr Stuart Scougall 1959
    Not on display
    Accession number
    © Estate of Wandjuk Marika/Copyright Agency

    Reproduction requests

    Artist information
    Wandjuk Marika

    Artist profile

    Works in the collection


  • About

    'Painting is very important. It's the design or symbol, power of the land.'

    Wandjuk Marika was born on Dhambaliya (Bremer Island), the eldest son of Mawalan Marika. His early life was influenced by the increasing intrusion of balanda (whitefella) influence and activity in Arnhem Land. After the establishment of Yirrkala Mission in 1935, increasing numbers of academics, mining representatives, hunters, fishermen and art enthusiasts visited the region.

    Marika grew up learning the skills associated with his future responsibilities as a leader of the Rirratjingu clan and Dhuwa moiety. His father taught him to hunt and his ceremonial obligations regarding the two major Dhuwa ancestral song cycles – the Djan'kawu Story and the Wawilak Sisters. Marika was also one of the first students, and later an assistant, at the Yirrkala Mission school. His facility with English enabled him to interpret Yolngu culture for visiting anthropologists and art collectors, including Charles Mountford and Ronald and Catherine Berndt. Marika started painting on bark when he was in his mid-teens, working with his father.

    The beginning of the Djan'kawu song cycle is characterised by descriptions of constant paddling, the rocking of the canoe in which the Djan'kawu travelled, and numerous marine observations. Approaching Yalangbara, the Djan'kawu feel the warmth of the rising sun upon their backs. This moment is wonderfully captured in Marika's bark painting 'Djan'kawu Story (The sun rising)', 1959, which depicts the dazzling sun as it comes over the horizon.

    In the painting 'Sea life (Dreaming of the artist's mother)', 1959, Marika demonstrates his association with his mother's Warramirri clan, and depicts a variety of marine species swimming over the field of miny'tji (sacred clan designs) representing the sea. The dots on the tentacles of the Portuguese man-of-war jellyfish represent its poison buds the poison they emit is said to heat the water and calm the sea.

    Throughout his life, Marika wrote letters on behalf of the eastern Arnhem Land clan leaders, including his father, to the Federal Government, protesting unsuccessfully the mining activities that were threatening Yolngu sovereignty over their lands. He travelled extensively in Australia and overseas as a member, and later chairman, of the (then) Aboriginal Arts Board of the Australia Council (1973-79). The unauthorised reproduction of 'Djan'kawu creation story', 1959, on a tea towel disturbed him to the extent that he stopped painting for a number of years. Marika became a key advocate for the legislative protection of Indigenous intellectual property rights.

    Ken Watson in 'Tradition today: Indigenous art in Australia', Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney, 2004

    © Art Gallery of New South Wales

  • Places

    Where the work was made


  • Exhibition history

    Shown in 1 exhibition

    • Gamarada, Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney, 15 Nov 1996–16 Feb 1997

  • Bibliography

    Referenced in 2 publications

Other works by Wandjuk Marika

See all 9 works