Early Buddhist images from Burma have distinctive stylistic qualities that distinguish them from their South-east Asian counterparts. The broad forehead, slightly Mongoloid eyes, tapering face and high 'ushnisha' - the cranial bump that symbolises the Buddha's wisdom - are all distinctively Burmese features. In Burmese Buddhism, which followed the Theravada path, the dominant figure is Akshobhya, represented here. In this characteristic pose the Buddha is seated with feet upturned, bearing wheel marks on his soles. A button-like protuberance on his forehead resembles the 'urna'. The left hand rests face up on the lap in the meditation 'mudra'; the right hangs with the tips of the outstretched fingers touching the ground in the 'bhumispara mudra'. With this gesture the Buddha invokes the earth to witness his resistance of the temptations of the spirit of evil, Mara.
Art Gallery Handbook, 1999. pg. 299.
'New Dimensions', by Jackie Menzies, pg. 54-63., Arts of Asia Nov 2003-Dec 2003, Nov 2003-Dec 2003, 60 (colour illus.). no.14
'Asian Favourites' by Jackie Menzies, pg. 24-27., Look Sep 2003, Sep 2003, 24 (colour illus.).
The Asian Collections Art Gallery of New South Wales 2003, 2003, 12 (colour illus.).
Jackie Menzies (Australia) (Editor), Buddha: Radiant awakening, Sydney, 2001, 26 (colur illus.), 183. cat.no. 7
Bruce James (Australia) (Author), Edmund Capon (England; Australia, b.1940) (Director), Art Gallery of New South Wales handbook, Domain, 1999, 299 (colour illus.).
'The Centre for Asian Art Studies', pg. 25., Look Sep 1998, Sep 1998, 25 (colour illus.).
Unknown (United Kingdom) (Author), Burmese Art and its Influences, London, 1981, 17 (illus.), 18. plate no. 15
Burmese Art and its Influences, Beurdeley, Matthews and Co. Ltd., 08 Apr 1981–25 Apr 1981.
Buddha: Radiant awakening, Art Gallery of New South Wales, 10 Nov 2001–24 Feb 2002.