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Short sword (piso sanalenggam)

late 19th century-early 20th century


Unknown Artist

  • Details

    Places where the work was made
    North Sumatra Indonesia
    Dairi North Sumatra Indonesia
    Cultural origin
    Pakpak Batak
    late 19th century-early 20th century
    Media category
    Arms & armour
    Materials used
    buffalo horn, iron, brass and wood
    62.1 x 10.0 x 2.6 cm :

    a - sword, 56.3 x 8.6 x 2.6 cm

    b - scabbard, 48.5 x 7.5 x 2.3 cm

    Christopher Worrall Wilson Bequest 2010
    Not on display
    Accession number

    Reproduction requests

  • About

    The Batak people of North Sumatra inhabit the mountainous interior region centring round Lake Toba. Aside from the Toba Batak, the Batak identify themselves as belonging to five other distinct communities. The Pakpak live west of the lake, the Karo are north-west and the Simalungun are east of the lake. The Angkola and Mandailing Batak who do not share their borders with the lake are further south and in closer proximity to the Indian Ocean. Whilst the Batak have long maintained trading links with coastal communities, especially along the Strait of Malacca,their relative isolation meant that they did not experience direct contact with Europeans until the mid 19th century when they were introduced to Christianity by Dutch missionaries. Whilst most Batak villagers converted to the new monotheistic religion they never entirely abandoned their pre-Christian animist cosmologies and as a result some interesting and syncretic religious practises were established.

    The shamanic priests of the Pakpak- like all practitioners of Batak supernatural magic – relied on an arsenal of powerful objects to mediate between the human, upper and lower worlds comprising the Batak cosmos. Made by the priest, these items included talismanic figures and devices, divination books and calendars, containers for storing potent medicines and potions (‘pupuk’), intricate staffs, and ceremonial weapons for
    sacrificial undertakings and the preparation of magical substances. This fine example demonstrates many of the distinguishing characteristics of a Pakpak priest’s short sword (piso sanalenngam). Carved from buffalo horn, the hilt depicts a kneeling male figure with intricately embellished facial features, headdress, adornments and textiles. The figure’s hands are shown placed at the abdomen with thumbs pointing upwards and
    fingers down, a common hand gesture in Batak figurative sculpture. The sheath is ornamented with a standard design of elongated triangles
    terminating in a foliate motif, which have been etched into the wood and rubbed with symbolic black and red pigments.

  • Exhibition history

    Shown in 1 exhibition

    • Glorious, Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney, 27 May 2017–06 Jan 2019

  • Bibliography

    Referenced in 2 publications

  • Provenance

    Christopher Wilson, 1983-1996, Sydney/New South Wales/Australia, purchased in Paris.

    Mariann Ford, 1996-Dec 2010, Sydney/New South Wales/Australia, inherited from the estate of Christopher Wilson. Gift to the Art Gallery of New South Wales as part of the Christopher Worrall Wilson Bequest 2010.