As one of the founding artists of 'Die Brücke' group in 1905, Kirchner is essential to the history of German expressionism, a movement he virtually personifies. Trained in Munich and Dresden, he was attracted to neo-impressionism, van Gogh and tribal artefacts, combining influences from all three in his searingly emotional paintings, drawings and prints. His woodcuts and woodcarvings combine traditional German folk forms with more primitive instincts. His oil paintings, ranging from ambitiously large to intimate in scale, equally show the effects of ethnographic research. The nudes in 'Three bathers' resemble the artist's painted carvings, echoing in turn the sculpted Eves of medieval art as well as African and Pacific statuary. Wearing lipstick and a look of enervation, these Berlin day-trippers huddle defensively in the Baltic waves. Uncannily presaging the coming blitzkrieg, the figures also predict the artist's own deteriorating health. Conscripted in 1915, Kirchner was discharged six months later with tuberculosis.
AGNSW Handbook, 1999.
oil on canvas
197.5 x 147.5 cm stretcher; 215.2 x 165.0 x 6.5 cm frame
Signature & date
Not signed. Not dated.
Art Gallery of New South Wales Foundation Purchase 1984
Shown in 14 exhibitions
Arbeiten von EL Kirchner, Kunstsalon Ludwig Schames, Frankfurt am Main, Oct 1916–Oct 1916
Kirchner: first American retrospective exhibition of oils, watercolours, prints, Busch-Reisinger Museum, Cambridge, 08 Dec 1950–12 Jan 1951
Lehmbruck and his contemporaries, Curt Valentin Gallery, New York, 24 Sep 1951–13 Oct 1951
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Curt Valentin Gallery, New York, 16 Apr 1952–10 May 1952
Closing exhibition. Sculpture, paintings and drawings, Curt Valentin Gallery, New York, 08 Jun 1955–Jun 1955
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner: a retrospective exhibition, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Boston, 20 Mar 1969–27 Apr 1969
Five years on: a selection of acquisitions 1981-1986, Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney, 26 Sep 1986–23 Nov 1986
German expressionism: the colours of desire:
- Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney 11 Oct 1989–10 Dec 1989
- National Gallery of Victoria [St Kilda Road], Melbourne 20 Dec 1989–18 Feb 1990
Great gifts, great patrons, Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney, 17 Aug 1994–19 Oct 1994
German expressionism: art and society, Palazzo Grassi S.p.a., Venice, 06 Sep 1997–11 Jan 1998
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner., Museo d'Arte Moderna della Città di Lugano, Switzerland, 19 Mar 2000–02 Jul 2000
(National Gallery of Australia collection display), National Gallery of Australia, Canberra, 01 May 2010–31 Aug 2010
Vibrant Metropolis / Idyllic Nature. Kirchner - The Berlin Years, Kunsthaus Zürich, Zurich, 10 Feb 2017–07 May 2017
1937. Die Aktion "Entartete Kunst" in Düsseldorf, Museum Kunstpalast, Dusseldorf, 14 Jul 2017–29 Oct 2017
Kunstsalon Ludwig Schames, 1916, Frankfurt am Main/Germany, Exhibited October 1916
Paul Multhaupt, pre 27 Mar 1928, Düsseldorf/Germany, Erkrath, near Düsseldorf
Kunstsammlungen der Stadt Düsseldorf, 27 Mar 1928-26 Aug 1937, Düsseldorf/Germany, Gift of Paul Multhaupt 27 March 1928. Confiscated by the German Reich as "Degenerate Art" from the Kunstsammlungen der Stadt Düsseldorf on 26 August 1937. Number 2046 on the National Socialist inventory, label verso. Not exhibited in the "Degenerate Art" exhibition. Stored at Schönhausen Palace, Berlin (storage of "useable" works of art) from August 1938 until 8 December 1939. Purchased by Karl Buchholz, 8 December 1939.
Buchholz Gallery Curt Valentin, 08 Dec 1939-1951, New York/New York/United States of America, Berlin dealer Karl Buchholz, was one of the four main art dealers granted permission by the German Reich to sell confiscated works of "Degenerate Art" on the international art market. In 1940 the painting was shipped to Buchholz’s New York gallery, run by Curt Valentin, inventory no. NY1957. In 1951 the gallery was renamed the Curt Valentin Gallery.
Curt Valentin Gallery, 1951-Jun 1955, New York/New York/United States of America, Purchased by Mr and Mrs Zimmermann, June 1955 from the 'Closing exhibition. Sculpture, paintings and drawings'.
Mr & Mrs Frederick Zimmermann, Jun 1955-circa 1969, New York/New York/United States of America, Frederick Zimmermann (USA 1906-67). Loaned by Mrs Dorothy Zimmermann to 'Ernst Ludwig Kirchner: a retrospective exhibition' at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 20 March - 27 April 1969. Touring exhibition, exhibited in Boston only.
Galerie Melki, 1973, Paris/France, Inventory no. 2073
Fischer Fine Art Ltd, pre 1984, London/England, Purchased by the AGNSW from Fischer Fine Art 1984
Referenced in 26 publications
Rudy Chiappini, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, 'Eine Kritische Betrachtung der Gesellschaft im Zerfall', pg. 43-62, Lugano, 2000, cover (colour illus.), 56, 57 (colour illus.), 72. cat.no. 35
Renée Free, Art Gallery of New South Wales handbook, 'European', pg. 36-56, Sydney, 1988, 52, 53 (colour illus.).
Renée Free, AGNSW Collections, 'The Western Heritage, Renaissance to Twentieth Century', pg. 108-172, Sydney, 1994, 148, 149 (colour illus.).
Bruce James, Art Gallery of New South Wales handbook, 'Western Collection: Paintings and Sculpture', pg. 17-77, Sydney, 1999, 55 (colour illus.).
Elwyn Lynn, The Weekend Australian, 'Nature versus humanity', Sydney, 01 Sep 1984-02 Sep 1984.
Katja Terlau, 1937. Die Aktion "Entartete Kunst" in Düsseldorf, 'Die Beschlagnahme von Gemälden und Bildwerken/ The confiscation of paintings and sculptures', pg.26-41, Dusseldorf, 2017, 28, 29 (colour illus.). 1937. The "Degenerate Art" Campaign in Düsseldorf
Michael Wardell, Look, 'Foundation building', pg.14-17, Sydney, Sep 2004, 14 (colour illus.).
Portrait of a Gallery, 'The Foundation', pg. 12-13, Sydney, 1984, 12, 13 (colour illus.).
Vibrant Metropolis / Idyllic Nature. Kirchner - The Berlin Years, Munich, 2017, (colour illus.).
German art in the 20th century, London, 1968, 54 (illus.). as 'Feldafing', Collection Buchheim
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner: a retrospective exhibition, Boston, 1968, 72 (illus.). cat.no. 39
Die Künstlergemeinschaft "Brücke", Feldafing, 1956, (illus.). fig.167
Closing exhibition. Sculpture, paintings and drawings, New York, 1955, (illus.). cat.no. 52, as 'Bathers'
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, New York, 1952, (illus.). cat.no. 7, as 'Bathers'
Lehmbruck and his contemporaries, New York, 1951. cat.no. 22, as 'Bathers'
Kirchner, Cambridge, 1950. no catalogue numbers, as 'Bathers'
Primitivism in modern painting, New York, 1938. fig.13
Arbeiten von EL Kirchner, Frankfurt am Main, 1916. no catalogue numbers
German expressionism: the colours of desire, Sydney, 1989, 62 (colour illus.). cat.no. 23
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, 'Berlin', pg.90-106, Cambridge, 1968, 90, 92, 106, 317 (illus.). plate 53, cat.no. 356
Kirchner and the Berlin street, 'Kirchner's working process: The street scenes', pg.67-81, New York, 2008, 77, 78 (colour illus.). fig.35
Art investigator, 'New Visions' - German Expressionism: Die Brücke', pg. 178-79, Melbourne, 1998, 179 (colour illus.).
Art Gallery of New South Wales Foundation Annual Report 1997, Sydney, 1997, 11 (colour illus.).
German expressionism: art and society, Milan, 1997, 170, 171 (colour illus.). cat.no. 19
Great gifts, great patrons: an exhibition celebrating private patronage of the Gallery, Sydney, 1994. no catalogue numbers
Five years on: a selection of acquisitions 1981-1986, Sydney, 1986, cover (illus.). cat.no. 138