Henri Matisse’s illustrated book Jazz (1947) is one of the most famous graphic works and arguably one of the best loved artworks of the 20th century. In Matisse’s first major ‘cut-out’ project, realism and abstraction are finally reconciled at the end of a life-long tension. With the cut-out technique, Matisse felt he had finally solved the problems of form and space, outline and colour. ‘It is not a beginning, it is an endpoint’, the artist stated.
Jazz comprises a set of 20 vivid colour stencils and over 70 pages of Matisse’s calligraphic writing. Jazz was pivotal in Matisse’s transition from oil painting to the cut-out collages that dominated the last decade of his life. To create these works, Matisse cut forms out of large sheets of paper previously painted with gouache by his assistants. The cut-outs were then assembled on the wall of Matisse’s studio, under his direction.
The compositions selected for Jazz were entrusted to the colour specialist Edmond Vairel to be turned into stencils. These were then printed with the same vivid gouaches used by Matisse. The cover and manuscript pages were printed separately by Draeger Frères in Paris. Jazz was published by Tériade in an edition of 250.
The book’s title evokes the idea of a musical structure of rhythm and repetition, expressed through the handwritten text, which is broken by the explosive improvisations of the colour plates. Matisse’s subjects are taken largely from the circus, mythology and memories of his travels. They represent either isolated figures or paired forms that suggest a dialogue between artist and model. Despite the vivid colours and folkloric themes, few of the plates are actually cheerful. Several are among Matisse’s most ominous images.
The writing of Jazz was very important for Matisse and though the pictures were mostly finished by 1944, he continued to work on the text until shortly before the book was published in September 1947. While the text gives the impression of great spontaneity, it was written out four or five times until Matisse was satisfied with the manner of expression and size of handwriting.
Matisse stated that his manuscript pages represent merely a visual accompaniment to the plates and ‘their role [was] thus purely spectacular’. Despite Matisse’s claim, the text and plates are actually subtly and consciously related. The underlying themes of art and artifice find many parallels in the text.
Jazz represents one of Matisse’s most interesting statements about his artistic development and the act of creation, which he believed results from the synthesis of instinct and intellect guided by discipline.
artist's illustrated book of twenty colour stencils on Vélin d'Arches
194/250 From an edition of 250, published by Tériade Editions with 20 pochoirs executed by Edmond Vairel and the cover and text printed by Draeger Frères. Signed on the colophon page. There was also an edition of 100, the so-called portfolio edition, and 20 hors commerce copies.
42.5 x 33.0 x 3.5 cm book closed; 42.5 x 70.2 cm book open :
a - Cover; 58.2 x 82 cm; entire sheet folded out, sheet is folded in parts (bottom, side and top) to form spine and edges of cover
b - front folded endsheet; 42.3 x 65 cm; sheet folded out
c - sheet one; 42.2 x 65 cm; sheet folded out
d - sheet two; 42.3 x 65 cm; sheet folded out
e - sheet three; 42.1 x 64.7 cm; sheet folded out
f - sheet four; 42.2 x 65.5 cm; sheet folded out
g - sheet five; 42 x 64.8 cm; sheet folded out
h - sheet six; 42.3 x 65.2 cm; sheet folded out
i - sheet seven; 42.1 x 65.2 cm; sheet folded out
j - sheet eight; 42.2 x 65.1 cm; sheet folded out
k - sheet nine; 42.2 x 65.5 cm; sheet folded out
l - sheet ten; 42.3 x 65.1 cm; sheet folded out
m - sheet eleven; 42 x 65.4 cm; sheet folded out
n - sheet twelve; 42.5 x 65.3 cm; sheet folded out
o - sheet thirteen; 42.2 x 65.4 cm; sheet folded out
p - sheet fourteen; 42 x 65.3 cm; sheet folded out
q - sheet fifteen; 42.2 x 65.7 cm; sheet folded out
r - sheet sixteen; 42.2 x 65.3 cm; sheet folded out
s - sheet seventeen; 42.3 x 65.4 cm; sheet folded out
t - sheet eighteen; 42.2 x 65.5 cm; sheet folded out
u - sheet nineteen; 42.3 x 65.1 cm; sheet folded out
v - sheet twenty; 42.4 x 65.1 cm; sheet folded out
w - sheet twenty-one; 42.4 x 65.5 cm; sheet folded out
x - sheet twenty-two; 42.1 x 65.3 cm; sheet folded out
y - sheet twenty-three; 42.2 x 65.1 cm; sheet folded out
z - sheet twenty-four; 42.3 x 65.3 cm; sheet folded out
aa - sheet twenty-five; 42.1 x 65.5 cm; sheet folded out
bb - sheet twenty-six; 42.2 x 65.2 cm; sheet folded out
cc - sheet twenty-seven; 42.5 x 65.1 cm; sheet folded out
dd - sheet twenty-eight; 42.2 x 65 cm; sheet folded out
ee - sheet twenty-nine; 42.1 x 65.2 cm; sheet folded out
ff - sheet thirty; 42.3 x 65.2 cm; sheet folded out
gg - sheet thirty-one; 42.2 x 65 cm; sheet folded out
hh - sheet thirty-two; 42.2 x 64.8 cm; sheet folded out
ii - sheet thirty-three; 42.2 x 64.9 cm; sheet folded out
jj - sheet thirty-four; 42.2 x 65.4 cm; sheet folded out
kk - sheet thirty-five; 42.2 x 65 cm; sheet folded out
ll - sheet thirty-six; 42.1 x 65.1 cm; sheet folded out
mm - sheet thirty-seven; 42.1 x 64.6 cm; sheet folded out
nn - sheet thirty-eight; 42 x 65.1 cm; sheet folded out
oo - sheet thirty-nine; 42 x 65.4 cm; sheet folded out
pp - back folded endsheet; 42.5 x 65 cm; entire sheet folded out, sheet is folded in parts (bottom, side and top) to form spine and edges of cover
Signature & date
Signed on the colophon page [sheet one], pencil "H. Matisse". Not dated.
Margaret Hannah Olley Art Trust 2014
Not on display
© Succession H Matisse. Licensed by Copyright Agency
Shown in 2 exhibitions
Christie's New York, New York/New York/United States of America, 29 October 2013, lot 133
Private Collection, England, purchased from Christie's NY, 29 October 2013, lot 133
Frederick Mulder, Old Master & Modern Prints, London/England, Purchased by the AGNSW from Frederick Mulder, Old Master & Modern Prints 2014
Referenced in 4 publications
Claude Duthuit, Henri Matisse. Catalogue raisonné des ouvrages illustrés établi avec la collaboration de Françoise Garnaud, Paris, 1988, pp 160–61, no 22.
Anne Gérard-Austin, Look, 'Drawing with scissors', Sydney, Jun 2015, pp 24–28. illustrations on cover page and pp 7, 24–25, 26, 27, 28.
Unknown, ‘Matisse ‘Jazz’ from bookshelf to gallery wall’, Sydney morning herald, no 55329, Sydney, 10 Feb 2015, p 22, col illus p 22.
Prints & multiples, Tuesday 29 October and Wednesday 30 October 2013, auction cat, Christie's New York, New York, 29 Oct 2013, pp 106–07, lot 133.