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An image of The orphan sisters by Harold Cazneaux

Harold Cazneaux

(New Zealand, Australia 30 Mar 1878 – 19 Jun 1953)

The orphan sisters
Media category
Materials used
gelatin silver photograph

19.6 x 23.5 cm image/sheet; 27.0 x 28.3 cm card (irreg.)

Signature & date
Signed l.r. card, pencil "H. Cazneaux". Not dated.
Gift of the Cazneaux family 1975
Accession number
Not on display
Further information

Cazneaux was born into a photographic family in 1878. During the 1870s his parents, originally from Australia, ran a photographic studio in Wellington, New Zealand, before returning home and settling in Adelaide, where Cazneaux’s father worked as a portraitist for William H Hammer. Harold too eventually worked for Hammer as an artist-retoucher while attending classes in design at the Adelaide School of Art. Although he became a consummate photographic technician, Cazneaux insisted that the study of art and design was necessary if the photographer was to become an artist rather than remain a mere operator. An 1898 exhibition by John Kauffmann, recently returned to Adelaide, convinced him of the expressive possibilities of photography.

Cazneaux moved to Sydney in 1904 to take up a job for the successful studio of Freeman & Co. Although he continued in the commercial studio system for 20 years, the environment took its toll. In 1917, with a young family of six children, he suffered a breakdown. While recovering, family and friends convinced him to open a studio, which he eventually operated from his home in Roseville. During the 1920s his work received increasingly wide exposure, with publisher Sydney Ure Smith employing him as official photographer for the luxurious lifestyle magazine ‘The Home’ and on other publications.

Cazneaux’s 1909 exhibition of 75 photographs is credited with being the first major solo show by an Australian photographer. It was enthusiastically reviewed and a number of photographers have written about its influence on their subsequent development. Sydney Ure Smith’s interest in photography probably dates from this time.1 For the photographer himself, the exhibition was an opportunity for critical reappraisal. He recalled: ‘I can thank that little show in many ways: it was the start of starting all over again for me.’2 After the exhibition new directions are apparent in his work. The photographs become more light-filled, with subjects less staged. ‘The orphan sisters’ is a fine example of early work. At this time he was employed as a portrait photographer for the Freeman studio. This photograph, which shows a debt to such English practitioners as Julia Margaret Cameron, has been severely cropped: the original negative is of a more conventional, vertical and waist-length double portrait.

1. Cazneaux H 1949, ‘Sydney Ure Smith’, ‘Australasian Photo-Review’, Dec p 784
2. Cazneaux H 1925, ‘Review of the pictures’, ‘Harrington’s Photographic Journal’, 1 Apr p 20

© Art Gallery of New South Wales Photography Collection Handbook, 2007

Bibliography (11)

Natasha Bullock, Harold Cazneaux: artist in photography, Sydney, 2008.

Natasha Bullock, Look, 'Harold Cazneaux: artist in photography', pg.28-31, Newtown, Jun 2008, 31.

Natasha Bullock (Curator), Soft shadows and sharp lines: Australian photography from Cazneaux to Dupain, Sydney, 2002. no catalogue numbers

Valerie Hill, The Cazneaux Women, 'Matrix and fragments of influence 1690s-1900s', pg.18-33, St Leonards, 2000, 20 (illus.), 30 (illus.).

Steven Miller, Photography: Art Gallery of New South Wales Collection, 'Australian pictorialism', pg.71-91, Sydney, 2007, 82 (illus.).

Denise Mimmocchi, Australian Symbolism: the art of dreams, Artful atmospheres: Symbolism and photography’, pg. 123-136, Sydney, 2012, 123, 127 (colour illus.), 144.

Francis J Mortimer (Editor), Photograms of the Year, London, 1915, 15. plate no. 55

Gael Newton, Project 7: Harold Cazneaux 1878 - 1953, Sydney, 1975. 11

Ursula Prunster, Seeing is believing: the art in photography, Sydney, 1985. 7

Wayne Tunnicliffe, Bridled Passions, Sydney, 1996, (illus.). no catalogue numbers

Editor Unknown (Editor), Lone Hand, Sydney, 01 Feb 1915, 152.

Exhibition history (7)

Project 7 - Harold Cazneaux: 1878 - 1953 (1975), Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney, 30 Aug 1975–28 Sep 1975

Seeing is believing - the art in photography, Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney, 13 Dec 1985–19 Jan 1986

Harold Cazneaux, Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney, 22 Dec 1989–11 Mar 1990

We Are Family, Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney, 15 Oct 1994–20 Nov 1994

Bridled Passions, Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney, 23 Nov 1996–02 Feb 1997

Soft Shadows and Sharp Lines: Australian photography from Cazneaux to Dupain, Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney, 30 Sep 2002–17 Nov 2002

Harold Cazneaux: artist in photography, Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney, 05 Jun 2008–10 Aug 2008